Electromagnetic

Electric Field and Electric Current

Electric field \vec E is defined in Columbus’s law. Electric field is defined as force acting on a unit of electric positive charge placed in an electric field. For example, an electric field exists between two different electric charges. In the example shown, there are negative electric charges on the left-hand side and positive electric charges on the right-hand side. The electric field can be represented by the vectors that point to the left.

The electric field can be tested by placing a negative electric charge in the electric field. In the example, a negative electric charge is placed in the electric field. Because the electric charge is negative, the force on this negative electric charge will point to the right which is opposite to the electric field.

The force on the electric charge will make the electric charge move. In the example, the negative electric charge will be forced to move to the right due to the positive charges on the right-hand side and the negative charges on the left-hand side. The amount of electric charges moving through a cross section per unit of time is defined as electric current.

What is mentioned here is based on the conventional knowledge of electric force. Electric force is one of four fundamental forces and is considered as a non-contact force. The cause of the electric force on the electric charge is usually left without explanation.

 

Electric Current Explained as Aether Flow

Aether Mechanics provides a mechanical explanation to electric force based on the proposed assumption of colliding and spin motions of the aether particles.

In Aether Mechanics, electric current is aether particle flow. Aether particles flow from a higher aether pressure location toward a lower aether pressure location as shown in the figure. Because pressure is directly related to energy density, aether flows from a higher energy density location to a lower energy density location.

Aether macroscopic flow and aether microscopic colliding motion are different. Aether colliding motion causes the aether pressure. Aether colliding velocity is referred to an individual aether particle and is observed from the box coordinate. On the other hand, aether flow causes electric current. Aether flow velocity is referred to an averaged total velocity at the location.

It might sound too strange to explain electric flow with aether flow because we cannot detect electric flow as the flow of aether particles. But, this explanation actually removes the concept of electric charge from the electric force because aether particles do not carry any electric charge. This will become clear when electromagnetic force is explained later in this chapter.

 

Biot-Savart Law Explained with Aether Spin

Biot-Savart law describes the magnetic field generated by an electric current. For example, an electric wire is placed upright as an electric current moves upward. Based on Biot-Savart law, this current will generate a magnetic field around this electric current. The direction of magnetic field \vec B is perpendicular to the current direction and follows the right-hand rule as shown.

This magnetic field caused by the electric current can also be explained by Aether
mechanics as follows.

Aether particles flow upward along the electric wire because electric current is nothing more than aether flow. This flow of aether particles will generate friction force on the surrounding aether particles. The friction forces are in the same direction of the aether flow or the electric current. The friction forces will cause the surrounding aether particles to spin in the direction perpendicular to the aether flow direction (following the right-hand rule as shown) and result in an average spin velocity in that direction. The force that can cause aether particles to spin is the so-called magnetic field.

In the example, aether particles on the left-hand side of the electric current have an upward friction force on the right-hand side surface. This upward friction force can cause aether particles to spin in an outward direction. The direction of the spin is the same as the direction of the magnetic field described by Biot-Savart law at this location.

Aether spin is partially caused by the friction force due to aether flow. Aether particles spin everywhere in the universe due to aether colliding motion. Since the spin vector is uniformly distributed in any direction, the average spin velocity is zero.

 

Lorentz Force Explained by Doppler Effect

Electric field is tested by placing an electric charge in the electric field to measure the force acting on the electric charge. Magnetic field is tested by placing a MOVING electric charge in the magnetic field to measure the force acting on the electric charge. The direction of the force acting on a moving electric charge in the magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of movement. This force is called Lorentz force.
Aether mechanics can explain Lorentz force using the Doppler effect as follows.
Aether particles spin uniformly in a uniform magnetic field. When an aether particle is moving from left to right, the aether particles in front of the moving particle will be squeezed into a higher mass density condition. As a result, there will be more spin aether particles per unit volume in front of the moving particle as shown. Therefore the total friction force due to aether spin will be greater in front of the moving particle than from behind. This resulting force is the Lorenz force.

The Doppler effect causes a higher mass density in front of a moving aether particle and is similar to higher air mass density in front of a high speed air plane. Only in relation to translational motion do aether particles behave in a similar manner to air gas particles.

 

Steady-state Flow and Oscillation Velocity

For steady state flow we consider only translational motion of aether particles. Such translational motion is described for different purposes of analysis and is observed from different coordinates. Microscopic colliding motion is used for analyzing aether pressure and kinetic energy density. Microscopic colliding motion is observed from the reference coordinate that moves along the oscillation motion. The oscillation motion is used for analyzing electromagnetic wave oscillation. Such oscillation motion is observed from the reference coordinate that moves along the flow motion. Finally, the flow motion is utilized for analyzing the aether flow that causes the gravitational force and is observed from the fixed global coordinate.

Steady state flow is used to describe the time independent of flowing velocity for calculating gravitational force. The time derivative of steady state flow velocity is zero. In fact, when the time dependent oscillation part of the motion is removed and only the time independent steady state motion is kept, steady state flow velocity describes the same averaged translational motion.
Spin motions of aether particles is a little different from translational motion. There is no steady state spin velocity if no steady state magnetic field exists. Spin oscillation is formulated as the average spin velocity of a group of aether particles. Vortex motion is only related to the translational motion and can be calculated by the curl of the aether translational motion.

The translational and spin oscillations contain no steady state flow information because they are observed from the steady state flow coordinate. The translational and spin oscillations are time dependent and are used to analyze the electromagnetic wave.